In our second section, you can travel the world in a single day on a journey through the major biomes on Earth. Learn about flora, fauna, and people that inhabit them, as well as the effects of human activity in each part.
No humans have ever settled down to live permanently on this icy continent. Only scientists have set up camp here to study the climate and its permanent residents. Even this relatively untouched land cannot escape the impacts of our activities, from ozone depletion to melting ice caps.
• The Arctic
This biome is also covered in ice and snow but has no continental land of its own—it is all ocean, icebergs, and ice floes. It is home to extraordinary animals such as whales, polar bears, walruses, and seals. Several indigenous groups also live in the Arctic, such as the Inuit, Chukchi, Inupiat, and Yupik. The Arctic is currently affected by global warming, causing the ice caps to melt, leaving almost literally nothing to stand on.
This cold biome has a short summer lasting only 50–60 days per year. No trees can grow here—only shrubs, grass, and moss. Many tundra species have seasonal moulting or shedding for camouflage and temperature regulation. Indigenous peoples that live on the tundra include the Nenets and Saami, who raise reindeer for a living. Global warming threatens the livelihoods of flora, fauna, and humans alike—especially from the melting permafrost underground.
Taigas are also known as boreal forests. Unlike the fiercely windy tundra, tall trees can grow here. These dense alpine forests are the largest biome on Earth, with a cold and harsh climate, long winters, and short summers—still, its inhabitants include some of the rarest, most endangered species. They are under grave threat from logging, mining, extraction of fossil fuels, and climate change.
Deserts are characterised by extraordinarily little precipitation. They also have extreme temperatures due to the low atmospheric humidity. Desert flora and fauna have evolved various adaptations to live in these conditions, such as sheltering in burrows and spiny leaves.
• Temperate Zone
Temperate ecosystems have four distinct seasons: spring, summer, autumn, and winter. Therefore, the species that live in these biomes have corresponding seasonal adaptations. This gallery is divided into five different geographic locations: Central Europe, North America, South America, Australia, and East Asia.
• Tropical Zone
The tropics contain some of the most productive and biodiverse ecosystems on Earth due to the large amount of sunlight and rainfall and the variety of niches and habitats in multiple forest levels. The exhibition presents five significant tropical regions: the Neotropics, Africa, Madagascar, Papua New Guinea, and Southeast Asia.
Soil is an essential resource that we might sometimes take for granted. In this gallery, visitors can explore the properties and uses of soil and consider solutions for soil sustainability.
There is no life without water. This section focuses on the water cycle, water quality, Thailand’s waterways, and water management strategies.
• Thailand’s Ecoregions
Ecoregions are even more specific than biomes—there are hundreds of terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecoregions around the world classified by their biogeography. Thailand has dozens of them, with its many different types of forests. Learn about them here, as well as the threats that they face.
• Thailand’s Forest Ecosystems
Our indoor arboretum is home to hundreds of plants native to Thailand’s forests: swamp forests, rainforests, dry deciduous forests, and hill evergreen forests. Outside, visitors will find constructed mangrove forests and freshwater wetlands, the latter of which is Rangsit’s natural biome.